Home » Materials & Resources » Writing Proficiency of Heritage Language Learners » References


Please note: The following references were consulted during the development of the WPHL research, but they are in no way an exhaustive representation of all the valuable research available on these topics on the date of publication, and the material that will be published in the future. We hope they are a useful starting point to orient yourself on these topics, with the understanding that these are fields that are quickly developing, and this list may no longer be actively maintained after August 2018.


American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (2012). ACTFL proficiency guidelines [Electronic version]. Retrieved July 6, 2016 from https://www.actfl.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/public/ACTFLProficiencyGuidelines2012_FINAL.pdf

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (2012). ACTFL performance descriptors for language learners. Retrieved November 7, 2017.

Heritage Languages and Heritage Speakers

Beaudrie, S., Ducar, C., & Potowski, K. (2014). Heritage language teaching: Research and practice. Columbus, Ohio: McGraw-Hill Education.

Beaudrie, S., & Fairclough, M. (Eds). (2012). Spanish as a heritage language in the United States: The state of the field. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Nagano, T. (2015). Demographics of adult heritage language speakers in the United States: difference by region and language and their implications. The Modern Language Journal, 99(4), 771-792.

Carreira, M. & Kagan, O. (2011). The results of the National Heritage Language Survey: Implications for teaching, curriculum design, and professional development. Foreign Language Annals, 44(1), 40-64.

Montrul, S. (2016). The Acquisition of Heritage Languages. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Polinsky, M. & Kagan, O. (2007). Heritage languages: In the ‘wild’ and in the classroom. Language and Linguistics Compass, 1(5), 368-395.

Scontras, G., Fuchs, Z. & Polinski, M. (2015). Heritage language and linguistic theory. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(1545), 1-20.

Swender, E., Martin, C., Rivera-Martinez, M. & Kagan, O.E. (2014). Exploring oral proficiency profiles of heritage speakers of Russian and Spanish. Foreign Language Annals, 47(3), 423-446.

Valdés, G. (2000). Introduction. In Spanish for native speakers. AATSP professional development series handbook for teachers K–16, Vol. 1 (pp. 1–20). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College.

Heritage Language Instruction

Correa, M. (2011). Heritage language learners of Spanish: What role does metalinguistic knowledge play in their acquisition of the subjunctive? In L. A. Ortiz-López (Ed.), Selected proceedings of the 13th Hispanic linguistics symposium (pp. 128-138). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.

Fairclough, M., & Beaudrie, S. M. (Eds). (2016). Innovative strategies for heritage language teaching: A practical guide for the classroom. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Intercultural Competence

Deardorff, D. K. (2006). The identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization at institutions of higher education in the United States, Journal of Studies in International Education, 10, 241-266


Cope, B. and Kalantzis, M. (2009). Multiliteracies: New literacies, new learning. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 4, 164-195.

Choi, J. (2015).  A heritage language learner’s literacy practices in a Korean language course in a US university: From a multiliteracies perspective. Journal of Language and Literacy Education, 11(2), 116-133.

Schleppegrell, M. J. & Colombi, M. C. (Eds.). (2002). Developing advanced literacy in first and second languages: Meaning with power. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Placement and Assessment

Beaudrie, S. & Ducar, C. (2012). Language placement and beyond: Guidelines for the design and implementation of a computerized Spanish heritage language exam. Heritage Language Journal, 9(1), 77-99.

Carreira, M. M. (2012). Formative assessment in HL teaching: Purposes, procedures, and practices. Heritage Language Journal, 9(1), 100-120.

Fairclough, M. (2012a). A working model for assessing Spanish heritage language learners’ language proficiency through a placement exam. Heritage Language Journal, 9(1), 121-138.

Fairclough, M. (2012b). Language assessment: Key theoretical considerations in the academic placement of Spanish heritage language learners. In S. Beaudrie & M. Fairclough (Eds.), Spanish as a heritage language in the United States: The state of the field (pp. 259-278). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Llosa, L. (2014). Assessing heritage language learners. In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment (pp. 440-453). Chichester, U.K. and Malden, MA: Wiley.

Second Language Acquisition—General

Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Ellis, R. (2004). Principles of instructed language learning. An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 33(2), 209-224.

Sociolinguistics & Critical Pedagogy

Leeman, J. (2005). Engaging critical pedagogy: Spanish for native speakers. Foreign Language Annals, 38(1), 35-45.

Leeman, J., Rabin, L. & Roman-Mendoza, E. (2011). Identity and activism in heritage language education. The Modern Language Journal, 95(4), 481-495.

Lynch, A., & Potowski, K. (2014). La valoración del habla bilingüe en los Estados Unidos: Fundamentos sociolingüísticos y pedagógicos en Hablando bien se entiende la gente. Hispania, 97(1), 32-46.

Martínez, G. (2003). Classroom-based dialect awareness in heritage language instruction: A critical applied linguistic approach. Heritage Language Journal, 1(1), 1-14.

Otheguy, R., Zentella, A. C. & Livert, D. (2007). Language and dialect contact in Spanish in New York: Toward the formation of a speech community. Language, 83(4), 770-802.


Callahan, L. (2010). U.S. Latino’s use of written Spanish: Realities and aspirations. Heritage Language Journal, 7(1), 1-27.

Elola, I. & Mikulski, A. (2013a). Revisions in real time: Spanish heritage language learners’ writing processes in English and Spanish. Foreign Language Annals, 46(4), 646-660.

Hedgcock, J. & Lefkowitz, N. (2011). Exploring the learning potential of writing development in heritage language education. In R. Manchón (Ed.), Learning-to-write and writing-to-learn in an additional language (pp. 209-233). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Kern, R. (2000). Literacy and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Loureiro-Rodriguez, V. (2013). Meaningful writing in the heritage language class: A case study of heritage learners of Spanish in Canada. L2 Journal, 5(1), 43-58.

Martínez, G. (2007). Writing back and forth: the interplay of form and situation in heritage language composition. Language Teaching Research, 11(1), 31-41.

Mikulski, A. M. & Elola, I. (2011). Heritage language learners’ allocation of time to writing process in English and Spanish. Hispania, 94, 715-733.

Reznicek-Parrado, L. (2014). The personal essay and academic writing proficiency in Spanish heritage language development. In E. Ene (Ed.), Arizona Working Papers in Second Language Acquisition and Teaching (pp. 71-83).

Yanguas, I. & Lado, B. (2012). Is thinking aloud reactive when writing in the heritage language? Foreign Language Annals, 45(3), 380-399.

Yi, Y. (2008). Voluntary writing in the heritage language: A study of biliterate Korean-heritage adolescents in the US. Heritage Language Journal, 6(2), 72-93.

Zapata, Gabriela C., and Manel Lacorte. (2009). Multiliteracies Pedagogy and Language Learning : Teaching Spanish to Heritage Speakers . Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.