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ACTFL levels of proficiency
A description of what individuals can do with language in terms of speaking, writing, listening, and reading in real-world situations in a spontaneous and unrehearsed context. (ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines, 2012)Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (ACMC)
Computer-mediated communication that occurs in deferred time.

Bilateral exchange
A telecollaboration between two groups of learners or two individual partners.

Bilingual exchange
A telecollaboration project where each participant can use both the expert language as well as the FL being learned. (Thorne, 2006)

E-tandem exchange
A bilingual, student-to-student model of exchange between two partners, who are native speakers of their partner’s target language. (O’Dowd, 2016)

Heritage Language Learner
A language student who is raised in a home where a non-English language is spoken, who speaks or at least understands the language, and who is to some degree bilingual in that language and in English. (Valdés, 2000)

Ice-breaker activity
An activity or set of activities that take place during the first stage of a telecollaboration project, and that aims for participants to get to know each other and to familiarize themselves with the project, learning environment, and tools to be used in the project. (Guth & Helm, 2010)

Intercultural Competence
A complex set of abilities needed to perform effectively and appropriately when interacting with others who are linguistically and culturally different from oneself. (Fantini, 2006)

Learner autonomy
An ability and willingness [on the part of a language learner] to learn both independently and in cooperation with others as a responsible learner. (Toyoda, 2001)

Multilateral exchange
A single exchange involving more than two groups. (Guth & Helm, 2010)

Multimodal learning environment
When a combination of synchronous and asynchronous tools are used for communication and collaboration. ( Dooly, 2011)

Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (SCMC)
Computer-mediated communication that occurs in real time.

A goal-oriented activity in which learners use language to achieve a real outcome. (Willis, 1996)

The application of online communication tools to bring together classes of language learners in geographically distant locations to develop their foreign language skills and intercultural competence through collaborative tasks and project work. (O’Dowd, 2011)